io: Basic file access
This module provides facilities for reading, creating, and writing files. The Stream class is also used as a base class for other file-like objects such as network connections.
Streams support both character and line based input and output. All of the following line endings are accepted when reading lines:
- CR (carriage return, decimal code 13)
- LF (line feed, decimal code 10)
Line based output uses the native line ending of the platform (CR+LF on Windows, LF on Unix-like operating systems).
All file operations and some stream operations may raise a std::IoError exception.
- This is the abstract base class of all stream classes defined in this module.
- This class represents open files using raw access, i.e. no character set conversion.
- This class can be used to wrap around raw streams to provide transparent character set conversion when reading or writing.
- This class represents open text files with a particular character encoding.
The following constants refer to standard streams. They are available as text stream objects using the platform default encoding:
- StdIn as TextStream
- The standard input stream.
- StdOut as TextStream
- The standard output stream. This stream will be line buffered if connected to a terminal, and buffered otherwise.
- StdErr as TextStream
- The standard error stream. This stream is always unbuffered.
The standard streams are also available as raw 8-bit streams:
- RawStdIn as File
- RawStdOut as File
- RawStdErr as File
- RawStdOut as File
- Raw standard streams. The buffering mode is the same as with corresponding non-raw streams.
Several options can be used with Stream and File constructors. They are all symbolic constants:
- Input as Constant
- Stream option for reading.
- Output as Constant
- Stream option for writing.
- Append as Constant
- File option for opening a file for writing. The existing file contents will be kept and the file pointer will be moved to the end of the file when the file is opened.
- Unbuffered as Constant
- Stream option for unbuffered access. The stream will be automatically flushed after every output operation and the use of an input buffer is minimized.
- LineBuffered as Constant
- Stream option for line buffered access. The stream will be automatically flushed after writing a line break. The output and input buffer sizes will be small.
- Buffered as Constant
- Stream option for fully buffered access. All stream input and output operations will be buffered. The flush method (or the close method) must be called after a set of write operations.
- Narrow as Constant
- Stream option for creating a narrow stream. Narrow streams only process 8-bit (narrow) strings, i.e. strings with no character codes larger than 255.
- Protected as Constant
- File option for creating a file that can only be accessed by the current user.
The platform default encoding class: